GENERAL INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM (IEP) TERMS
There are many terms used to describe the services
that your child may receive through special education. Some are
very clear and describe exactly what the service is. Others may
need more definition. The list that follows includes a sampling
of the educational terms used at Pupil Evaluation Team (PET) meetings
and in the development of an Individual Educational Program (IEP).
These terms are used throughout the PET process and in the development
of an IEP. A comprehensive list can be found in Maine State Education
Regulations (MSER), Chapter 101, Section 2, pages 3-9.
Educational Performance (2.7)
An Educational Performance includes academic areas (reading, math,
communication, etc.), nonacademic areas (daily life activities,
mobility, etc.), extracurricular activities, progress in meeting
goals established for the general curriculum, and performance
on state-wide and local assessments.
Instructional Time (2.13)
"Instructional Time" means the period in which the student
is provided with an opportunity to participate in learning activities.
It does not include lunch, recess or the time between classes,
unless specified in the student's IEP.
Special Education Placement (2.21)
Special Education Placement means the instructional setting in
which special education services are provided and is a physical
location. A placement is neither a type of service nor a type
Special Education Program (2.22)
A "Special Education Program" is a full or part time
educational program designed to provide Free Appropriate Public
Education (FAPE), as specificed in the student's IEP.
SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TERMS
A comprehensive list can be found in MSER Chapter
101, Section 5, pages 20-27.
Consultation Services (5.4)
Provided by qualified special education personnel to help regular
education teachers modify or adapt their curriculum to serve students
with disabilities and must be included in the student's Individual
Educational Program (IEP).
Direct Instruction (5.5)
Instruction provided by an appropriately supervised special education
professional or an appropriately supervised educational technician,
consistent with the IEP.
Extended School Year (5.9)
The Pupil Evaluation Team (PET) determines the need for Extended
School Year (ESY) services on an individual basis. The PET must
determine whether or not the student may be at risk of losing
skills they have already mastered over the summer and unable to
recoup those skills within a reasonable period of time when school
resumes in the fall.
- Extended school year services must be made available if they
are necessary for the student to receive Free Appropriate Public
Education (FAPE) and are provided at no cost to parents.
- Extended school year services cannot be limited only to students
with certain types of disabilities.
Graduation services may include a regular diploma, or the PET
may decide to make "reasonable and appropriate adaptations
of and accommodations to the state and local graduation requirements,
to reflect the unique skills and abilities of the student,"
which may be in the form of a certificate or other document. These
decisions are made when the student is between the ages of 15
and 20 inclusive, and the projected date of graduation must be
written in the IEP. Parents should be aware that policies about
graduation vary from school district to school district. Be sure
to check with administrators about your local policy.
FMI: See GRADUATION/AGING
OUT in Chapter 9.
Monitoring Services (5.3)
Provided to students who have been transitioned into a regular
education program and are limited to one year. The purpose of
monitoring is to help the student transition into a less restrictive
educational alternative. At the conclusion of the year of monitoring
services, the student will either be discharged from special education,
or eligibility will be continued and the student will receive
special education services.
Physical Education (5.14)
The development of physical and motor fitness; fundamental motor
skills and patterns; and skills in aquatics, dance and individual
and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime
sports). It includes adapted physical education, movement education
and motor development. If modifications are needed in the physical
education program, a specially designed, adapted physical education
program must be included in the IEP and the school must provide
the services or make arrangements for it to be provided through
Speech and Language Services (5.10)
Provided by licensed professionals for students with communication
disorders such as stuttering, impaired articulation, or language
or voice impairments.
Transition Services (5.13)
To promote movement from school to post-school activities, including
post-secondary education, vocational training, integrated employment,
continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living,
or community participation.
Tutorial Services (5.8)
Provided to students who are unable to participate in regular
or special education classes, as determined by the PET. If the
Tutorial Services are anticipated to last longer than 10 days,
the PET shall convene to develop a new IEP.
SUPPORTIVE SERVICES TERMS
Please note that the term "supportive services"
is federal language in Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA) '97 and in MSER Chapter 101. Parents and school personnel
may be using the term "related services" interchangeably
with "support services." A comprehensive list can be
found in MSER Chapter 101, Section 6, pages 27-34.
Audiology Services (6.4)
Specific to students with hearing losses. This type of service
can include assessment, provision of equipment for amplification
(i.e. hearing aid), and rehabilitative activities designed to
help the student communicate either with or without a hearing
aid or other amplification device.
Modifications and Accommodations
It is important for you to become familiar with modifications,
accommodations, adaptations, and positive supports in order to
make sure that your child's program is provided in the Least Restrictive
Educational Alternative (LREA). It is important to make modifications,
adaptations and accommodations a part of a student's IEP. Simply
reflecting them in the PET minutes does not make them legally
binding. It is important to note who is responsible to carry out
these functions (i.e.: Regular Education Teacher, Special Education
Modification: A change in the
regular education curriculum or program made for a student with
a disability. A modification changes the expectations or standard
results of the curriculum.
- Student example:
- A student receives a scaled down version of a test, as
compared to the test given to other students in the same
- A teacher provides a separate word bank sheet for the
student to use in filling in the blanks during test taking.
Accommodation: student's program
changes the format (way) in which something is delivered or received.
- Student example:
- A student would be allowed to submit a verbally taped response
to a test, rather than a written response.
- Teacher example:
- A teacher would give a copy of class time lecture notes to
the student to accompany the verbal lecture being given that
Orientation and Mobility Services (6.9)
Provided to students who are blind or visually impaired to enable
them to move safely and systematically through their home, school
Parent Counseling and Training (6.10)
Used to help parents understand their child's special needs and
development. Parent Training can help you acquire the skills necessary
to be involved in the development and implementation of your child's
Psychological Services (6.11)
Can include consultation, evaluation, behavior management, social
skills training and/or psychotherapy.
Recreation Services (6.12)
An assessment of leisure functions and can include therapeutic
recreation services, recreation programs in schools and community
agencies, and leisure education. It is included in the list of
supportive services because children need to learn how to use
their leisure time appropriately. Recreation therapy can improve
social as well as physical skills. Recreation, leisure and play
are vital to the student's sense of well being. Recreation Goals
can help your child:
- To learn lifetime leisure skills
- To increase physical fitness
- To develop social skills
- To independently access leisure opportunities within the community
Rehabilitation Counseling (6.13)
Done by a counseling professional with a specific focus on disability,
including career development, vocational rehabilitation, and employment
preparation of people with disabilities. Rehabilitation counselors
can provide valuable input during the process of transition planning
as you begin to consider career options for your child.
School Health Services (6.14)
Medical services necessary for the student to attend school that
do not require a physician's expertise within the school setting.
This can include services provided by the school nurse, such as
the administration of medication during the school day.
Social Work Services (6.15)
In schools include activities such as counseling with the child
and family; working with the child and family in the school, home,
and community; and identifying community resources needed by the
Special Education Equipment/Assistive
Assistive Technology Device
Includes any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether
acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized,
that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional
capabilities of individuals with disabilities. This can include
a wide range of equipment such as wheelchairs, computers, adapted
software, augmentative communication device, etc.
The key to obtaining needed assistive technology
(AT) for your child is to show that they need the technology to
benefit from special education in order to access, more appropriately,
the general curriculum.
Assistive Technology Service
Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in
the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology
- Evaluating the needs of a child with a disability including
functional evaluations done in the child's customary environment
- Purchasing, leasing or otherwise providing for the acquisition
of assistive technology devices by children with disabilities
- Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying,
retaining, repairing, or replacing of assistive technology devices
- Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or
services with assistive technology devices
- Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability
or, if appropriate, that child's family
- Training or technical assistance for professionals (including
those providing educational and rehabilitation services), employers
or other persons who provide employment services or are substantially
involved in the major life functions of children with disabilities.
A supportive service includes travel to and from school and between
schools; travel in and around school buildings; and special equipment
such as adapted buses, lifts, walkers, wheelchairs and ramps.
Transportation services must be documented within the student's
IEP. The PET must consider the LREA when considering transportation
needs and determine any modifications and/or adaptations, including
the employment of a transportation aide, and any adaptations needed
to ensure appropriate and accessible transportation services.
Transportation schedules may not result in shortened school days
for the student. Parents are not required to pay any fees for
transportation. If parents agree to transport the student, the
school must reimburse for mileage and other expenses.
|What Has Worked For Us,
As Parent(s), And Our Children Regarding Modifications
"We try to review the modifications
with our child every couple of weeks. Teachers and
classes are continually changing; the modifications
need to stay constant. The only way to ensure that
they are happening is to check in with your child
from time to time."
"Just before a PET, I sit down
with my son and we go over each modification listed.
We talk about if it works or not, what could make
it work better and then write this out. We then bring
our thoughts and suggestions to the PET meeting."
"I try to meet with teachers
individually at the start of the school year and discuss
classroom modifications. This helps to make sure we
all have the same understanding of what will be done.
I also check in from time to time. Its an on-going,
evolving process, throughout the entire school year."
"I always talk to the experts
that help me the most, parents of kids around the
same age with similar disabilities. I found out some
PETs accept community-based activities like Karate
and Adventure programs as Substitute Physical Education."